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Từ điển Oxford Advanced Learner 8th

pro·por·tion AW [proportion proportions proportioned proportioning] BrE [prəˈpɔːʃn] NAmE [prəˈpɔːrʃn] noun
1. countable + singular or plural verb a part or share of a whole
Water covers a large proportion of the earth's surface.
Loam is a soil with roughly equal proportions of clay, sand and silt.
The proportion of regular smokers increases with age.
A higher proportion of Americans go on to higher education than is the case in Britain.  
2. uncountable ~ (of sth to sth) the relationship of one thing to another in size, amount, etc.
Syn: ratio
The proportion of men to women in the college has changed dramatically over the years.
The basic ingredients are limestone and clay in the proportion 2:1.
The room is very long in proportion to (= relative to) its width.
3. uncountable, countable, usually plural the correct relationship in size, degree, importance, etc. between one thing and another or between the parts of a whole
You haven't drawn the figures in the foreground in proportion.
The head is out of proportion with the body.
an impressive building with fine proportions
Always try to keep a sense of proportion (= of the relative importance of different things).  
4. proportionsplural the measurements of sth; its size and shape
This method divides the task into more manageable proportions.
a food shortage that could soon reach crisis proportions
a room of fairly generous proportions  
5. uncountable the equal relationship between two pairs of numbers, as in the statement ‘4 is to 8 as 6 is to 12’
Idioms:keep something in proportion out of proportion

Word Origin:
late Middle English: from Old French, from Latin proportio(n-), from pro portione ‘in respect of (its or a person's) share’.

proportion noun U, pl.
The head is out of proportion with the body.
ratio • • scale
the proportion/ratio of A to B
out of proportion/scale
a high/low proportion/ratio

Grammar Point:
If proportion is used with an uncountable or a singular noun, the verb is generally singular: A proportion of the land is used for agriculture.
If the proportion of is used with a plural countable noun, or a singular noun that represents a group of people, the verb is usually singular, but with a (large, small, etc.) proportion of a plural verb is often used, especially in BrE: The proportion of small cars on America’s roads is increasing. A high proportion of five-year-olds have teeth in poor condition.

Language Bank:
Describing fractions and proportions
According to this pie chart, a third of students' leisure time is spent watching TV.
One in five hours is/are spent socializing.
Socializing accounts for / makes up / comprises about 20% of leisure time.
Students spend twice as much time playing computer games as doing sport.
Three times as many hours are spent playing computer games as reading.
The figure for playing computer games is three times higher than the figure for reading.
The largest proportion of time is spent playing computer games.
note at ↑half
Synonyms at ↑consist
Language Banks at ↑expect, ↑fall, ↑illustrate, ↑increase

Example Bank:
The chart shows government spending expressed as a proportion of national income.
The company employs men and women in roughly equal proportions.
The computer brings the huge task of stock control down to more manageable proportions.
The cost of insurance increases in proportion to the performance of the car.
The costs of the plan are out of proportion to the budget available.
The food shortage had reached crisis proportions.
The human population in the region is expanding in inverse proportion to the wildlife.
The problem has been exaggerated out of all proportion.
The proportion of sand to cement used was three to one.
The unskilled section of the working class was diminishing as a proportion of the workforce.
There is an entrance hall of perfect proportions, twice as long as it is wide.
This issue was about to be blown out of proportion.
Try to keep a sense of proportion.
Try to keep your view of the situation in proportion.
It is an impressive building with fine proportions.
The basic ingredients are limestone and clay in the proportion 2:1.
The room is very long in proportion to its width.
You haven't drawn the figures in the foreground in proportion.

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